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Pre-fire plan and emergency response for LPG sphere fire in oil refinery

Pre-fire plan and emergency response for LPG sphere fire in oil refinery

Pre-fire plan and emergency response for LPG sphere fire in oil refinery

The pre-fire plan and emergency response strategy are crucial at oil refineries, petrochemical and oil & Gas terminals to mitigate any gas leak, fire and explosion emergency. The pre-fire plan helps emergency responders to manage any emergency efficiently by identifying the proactive mitigation actions for each credible identified emergency scenario and thus helps to minimize the losses.
The storage of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) possess high risk of fire and explosion due to its flammability property and may form vapour cloud at ground level due to its high density. 
This article provides information on effective emergency response by preparing a pre-fire plan and the best firefighting strategies for LPG fire and explosion emergencies for bulk storage.
In this article, we will discuss the different credible emergency scenarios in handling and storage of LPG and action plan to mitigate these emergencies by improving the implementation and practice of the pre-fire plan (PFP) or the pre-incident plan (PIP). We start with the general handling and storage process of LPG, associated hazards, Fire protection system, emergency response planning and firefighting strategies.

LPG storage facility in refinery

LPG is mixture of propane and butane and is stored in bulk quantity at refinery and gas terminals, mostly stored in pressurised vessels and Horton spheres from where it is transferred to LPG gantry for wagon filling. Mounded vessels are also used for storing the LPG in some installations.  In some refinery, LPG is directly transported to market through fixed pipeline from storage facility.

Hazard associated with LPG storage and handling

Below are the major hazards of LPG bulk storage
·        Fire Hazard- Jet Fire/Flash Fire
·        Explosion –UVCE and BLEVE and secondary fires
·        Formation of vapour cloud due to its higher density.

Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion (BLEVE):  It is an explosion of container (sphere, vessel, tanker, cylinder, etc) containing flammable liquid/liquefied gas caused by over pressurization due to boiling of the liquid. This usually occurs due to the prolonged heating of the container and liquid/ liquefied material reached at its boiling point, therefore the conversion rate from liquid  to vapour is higher than the release rate through safety relief valve/ vent, which increases the pressure inside the container. In addition, when the liquid converted to gas, it expands and creates more pressure inside the container, for example, expansion ratio of LPG from liquid phase to vapour phase is 1: 270 (i.e. 1 liter of liquid expands to 270 liters of vapour/gas).
Three main factors responsible for BLEVE, one is the over pressurization due to the boiling of liquid, the second vaporization rate is more than venting and the third is material loose it’s tensile strain due to prolong heating by an external flame.
These three factors resulted in a catastrophic rupture of container and the pressurized flammable vapour released suddenly in the form of massive explosion called BLEVE.
A secondary fire in nearby facility can be caused by shock wave and propelled pieces of container.

Unconfined vapour cloud explosion (UVCE): It is a delayed explosion of released flammable vapor/ gas away from point of leak source after the formation of flammable mixture in an unconfined area.
UVCE occurred when flammable gas released into the atmosphere, after some delay, forms a vapour cloud and ignited by ignition source away from its point of leak source resulted into deflagration.
In UVCE, the flame propagate at an ultrasonic velocity thus produces shock waves and destroys the entire installation covered under the cloud.
A secondary fire in the facility can be caused by shock wave and direct contact of fire and explosion.
If the gas is heavier than air (LPG, vapours of gasoline, diesel, kerosene and other hydrocarbons), the flammable cloud covers more area whereas lighter gas (hydrogen, methane, etc) forms less flammable cloud because it disperses easily.

Flash fire: It is the ignition of flammable vapour/gas mixture within its flammable range immediately after it’s released from the source. This type of fire doesn’t cause an explosion, but the flame burns back against vopour cloud.

Jet fire: The release of gas, vapor, or liquid from the container above atmospheric pressure and causes a fire due to ignition, called as jet fire. It is a 3D fire in the form of a jet.

Safety consideration in LPG storage facility

LPG Horton spheres or vessels are placed into groups and each group is limited to six spheres/vessels.
Storage quantity of each group is limited to 15000 M3 and curb wall provided around the storage area for containment of leakage. Storage spheres/ vessels are installed in single row and vessels/ bullets must not be stacked one above the other All storage spheres/ vessels are separated from each other in same group or from adjacent group by minimum distance of 30 meters. Minimum 30 meter separation distance maintained form group to group also.  
In case of LPG vessel, installation should be such that the longitudinal axes of horizontal vessels or bullets must not be pointed toward any other process facility, equipment or other LPG storage container.
LPG storage facility should not be located upwind of process units’ heaters/ furnace. Therefore, it must be placed in downwind of process units so that in case of any leakage, vapour cloud should not be travel toward process unit to prevent source of ignition.
LPG storage tanks (sphere/vessel/bullate)  are not installed along with other liquid hydrocarbons storage tanks in same dyke. Shallow sump for LPG spillage collection is generally located at a safe distance to prevent flame propagation from sump in case of fire event. Typically, 15-meter distance is considered as safe for this sump, but the distance may be vary by considering adjacent storage tank diameter.
The height of curb wall around the LPG storage tank is limited to minimum 30cm and maximum 60 cm.
Safe separation distance of LPG bulk storage should be maintained during designing stage and it must not be less than 60 meters from process units, control building and any electrical substations.
Separation distance from flare, fire stations and process unit heater/ furnace must not be less than 90 meters whereas it should not be less than 30 meters from nearest oil storage area, loading gantries and rail spurs.
Access roads suitable for fire engines by considering turning radius is provided all around the storage facility.
Inspection and testing of safety relief devices is important along with other critical safety equipment and devices. Adequate process control is necessary to protect against LPG leakage during water draining activity and other maintenance work.

Credible Emergency Scenarios for LPG Storage

·        Jet Fire / Flash fire in case of leakage and ignition within short time.
·        Pool fire in LPG if major leak from bottom of storage
·        Formation of vaplour cloud due to leak without fire and cover huge area upto 2 Km
·        Vapour cloud explosion due to delayed ignition and secondary fires
·        BLEVE due to the prolonged heating by flame impingement to storage tank shell and secondary fires.

Fire protection system for LPG storage facility

Entire LPG storage facility is provided with fire water ring main with fire water hydrants and water monitors. Fire water header pressure is mostly maintained at 10.5 kg/cm2 at all time. Automatic water spray deluge system is provided for all LPG storage spheres/ vessel covering compressors/ pumps and important isolation valves. Flow rate of water spray system is 10.2 lpm/m2 for storage tank and 20.4 lpm/m2 for compressor and pumps.
Portable DCP fire extinguishers are provided in storage facility as per NFPA-10. Trolley mounted dry chemical power extinguishers of capacity 50 kg/ 75 kg are provided at compressor and pump area.
DCP mobile fire engine of capacity 4ooo kg is provided at fire station for LPG firefighting. Entire area of LPG storage is provided with gas detectors for early detection and communication. Manual call points provided in the area for emergency alarming and communication to fire department.

Refinery emergency response plan for LPG storage fire

Planning for emergency preparedness and response at a refinery is an important document developed with reference to the quantitative risk assessment (QRA), including modelling of gas dispersion.
Here in this article we are discussing the emergency response plan for the LPG Horton sphere only. The emergency response plan must include the mitigation measures by the operations team, the maintenance team, the site incident controller, the security team, the firefighting crew and the medical team applicable to all credible scenarios.
Now we are discussing here the common course of actions for all types of LPG emergencies by each key member.

Emergency response plan - Action by the operational team:
In the event of an emergency, by any person, activate the nearby manual call point (MCP) and simultaneously transmit the message to the operator of the control panel and operational Shift In charge of storage-sales and dispatch area (SSDA) via Walkie Talkie.
The control room panel officer must inform the respective plant manager, the chief operating officer and the manager of the refinery shift.
The SSDA panel officer must inform the panels officer of neighboring units. Then, he must make an announcement via the public address system to stop all work and evacuate the area immediately.
The operating team, including the field officer and the site manager, initiates mitigation measures based on the LPG leak without fire or with fire scenario.
Simultaneously, the operations team must initiate isolation of the LPG sphere, stop the loading/ unloading activity of affected area including gantry operation.
The operation team should assist the firefighting team and the medical team by directing them to the emergency scene. The initial firefighting or any other mitigation measure must be initiated by the operating team, viz. operation of fire extinguishers, water spray system for cooling all LPG spheres in the group , operation of fire monitors and fire hydrant, etc.
The operating team must monitor the LEL concentration during the emergency and after completion.
Operation in charge must maintain constant communication with the site incident controller on the measures taken and must work under the direction of the site incident controller.

Emergency action by Site Incident Controller
Upon receipt of the emergency call, the site incident controller must reach the incident site and assume overall command in accordance with the refinery's emergency response and disaster management plan.
Assess the situation, establish the command post in a safe place and obtain all the information on the measures taken by the area manager / shift manager, the fire commander, the security officer and the maintenance in-charge.
Depending on the situation, site incident controller will guide the operating team to initiate the necessary isolation or the emergency shutdown of facility, if necessary. Site incident controller must ensure that all of the above emergency actions have been taken by the operations team.
The site incident controller will take all relevant information from the fire commander and decide on the strategy to follow in consultation with Fire chief for additional resources, calling for mutual aid and adopting alternative methods to mitigate the emergency.
The site incident controller must ensure that the area is barricaded, that the movement of vehicles is restricted, that evacuation and enumeration at the assembly point are done by security team.
The site incident controller must request the maintenance team to perform a maintenance activity to stop the leak in accordance with their standard operating procedures.
He must ensure that the injured person has been transferred to the health center and also ensure the availability of first aiders and auxiliary firefighters.
The site incident controller must initiate an adequate level of emergency siren after discussion with the chief incident controller (Refinery Head).
He is responsible for declaring "All Clear" after ensuring the safe mitigation of the emergency. Before declaring “All Clear”, he must assess the situation for damage and the environment.

Emergency mitigation action by Maintenance Team
The maintenance leader must ensure that the maintenance team immediately reaches the incident site with the necessary non-sparking tools and resources in accordance with their standard operating procedures and initiates the action line in accordance with safe maintenance practices.
Maintenance in charge must report to the site incident controller and issue directives for the continuation of the maintenance activities to be carried out.

Emergency action by Security Team:
The security officer must report to the incident site immediately after receiving an emergency call and report to the site incident controller.
They must delimit the area and restrict the movement of non-essential people. They must regulate traffic and authorize only emergency vehicles on the emergency site.
Ensure an orderly evacuation to the assembly point. A security officer counts the workforce and rebroadcasts it to the site incident controller.
All emergency team leaders must ensure the safety of their team members and mandatory PPE is used.

So far, we have discussed the general course of action of all key personnel to mitigate any type of emergency in LPG storage facility. Let's start specific emergency mitigation measures for specific types of emergencies, as noted above.

Pre-fire plan

The pre-fire plan or pre-incident plan is prepared to effectively mitigate any emergency to minimize the losses. Generally, the pre-fire plan is developed by emergency responders such as fire and rescue services. NFPA 1620 provides detailed guidelines for developing pre-fire plans to assist emergency responders in effectively mitigating emergencies. When developing the pre-fire plan, it is necessary to ensure the protection of plant peoples, emergency response personnel, property and the environment.
Pre-fire plan and emergency response for LPG sphere fire in oil refinery
Pre-fire plan for LPG sphere emergency

The pre-fire plan must be prepared for a specific machine / equipment / sphere/ vessel or structure in a specific installation in refinery or oil terminal with reference to the QRA. It must be documented and guarantee its accessibility to all emergency responders. It can be communicated at the facility level for better understanding and to reduce the response time of emergency responders.
Below important points must be considered in the pre fire plan document.
Data collection: QRA report and list of credible scenarios for specific equipment.
Scope: When preparing the pre-fire plan, the physical site condition must be taken into account.
Procedure and Templates: The procedure for developing a pre-fire plan with a standard template must be finalized for standardization.
Human occupation: When preparing the pre-fire plan, the density and type of occupation and the level of exposure to a particular equipment / area must be taken into account.
Fire protection system: During the preparation of the pre-fire plan, collect all data to know the availability of existing water supply and fire protection systems
Hazard Consideration: List all possible hazards and communicate to the responders and mitigation team, including special hazards.
Emergency management action plan and strategy: finalize emergency operations, fire-fighting tactics, dilution and dispersion tactics of toxic gases / flammable gases.
Resources requirement: Estimated resources including manpower, firefighting equipment, firefighting media, etc
Welfare and medical facility: Estimated welfare facility must be considered while preparing pre-fire plan for major emergencies. It must also include ambulance and other emergency transportation facility and first Aid.
Fire drill / Mock drill: Pre-incident plan must be practiced by conducting regular fire drills/ mock drill. It should be dynamic document and should be reviewed and revised with changes in technology and for new hazard identification.

Pre-fire plan for management of LPG leakage, UVCE and to prevent BLEVE

Ref. Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) of the LPG storage spheres, the risk level should be considered while preparing the pre-fire plan and developing an emergency response plan.
The pre-fire plan can be prepared by the fire department in consultation with the operations team. Pre-fire plan should be prepared for all credible scenarios. Here for understanding, we are considering below major scenarios having maximum impacts.
Vapour cloud explosion and risk of BLEVE due to LPG leakage from downstream flange of LPG spheres body valve at Storage, Sales, Dispatch Area (SSDA)” 

Leakage of LPG in liquid phase from downstream flange of MOV due to Gasket failure (Considered - Sphere body valve is not in position to be closed manually & ROV not working)
Vapour cloud has formed and covered about 1 km area.
UCVCE occurred due to unknown source.
Fire at flange with jet flame impingement on the adjacent LPG sphere.
Prolong Flange impingement on Sphere shows sign of BLEVE
Three LPG spheres present in one group of layout
Wind speed is about 24 km/hr
Diameter of LPG Sphere = 17m.
LPG is received from storage area and stored in SSDA LPG sphere and dispatched to LPG gantry for wagon filling.
Capacity = 2573 M3

Material Name                           :   LPG
Operating Temperature            :   25 deg C
Operating Pressure                    :   8 to 9 kg/cm2
LEL                                                :   1.9 %
UEL                                               :   9.5 %
TLV                                                :  Butane : 800 ppm     Propane : 1000 ppm
Normal Boiling Point                 :   -40 deg C
Auto-ignition Temperature       :   432 deg C
Vapour Density                           :  1.5-1.8 gm/cc
Specific Gravity                           :   0.51 – 0.58
Water Solubility                           :   Slight, 6.1% by volume

BLEVE: - If the fire not controlled & insufficient cooling operation may lead to  BLEVE
Damage Distance (685 m)  @ 37.5 kW/m²
Damage Distance (1180 m)  @ 12.5 kW/m²
Damage Distance (1978 m)  @ 4.0 kW/m²
Explosion shock waves can damage the Life & property within 2 KM range.
Adjacent  LPG spheres (3 No) may cause secondary BLEVE.

Consequences analysis for LPG sphere emergencies
Consequences analysis for LPG sphere emergencies

May cause multiple fires at SSDA storage area and installations in facility.
Massive damage to Health may occur

Impact of Incident may affect nearby community.

06 nos Manual Call Point (02 at North , 01 at west, 01 at south & 02 at east side)
LPG Detectors – 4 Nos

The sphere is protected with water spray deluge system.
Fire water hydrant network is provided all around the dyke
Fire water monitors around the side of the dyke – 8 Nos
Portable DCP extinguishers are available in the dyke & near the LPG compressor.
Vapour balancing line is provided with All LPG spheres to prevent BLEVE.
(Note: When preparing the pre-fire plan, the total number of fire protection systems must be taken into account with their identification / tagging.)
·     Fire Hydrants = ___Nos and location
·     HVLRM (2000 GPM) = ___Nos and location
·     Water cum foam monitors = ___Nos and location
·     Water spray systems (DV) = ___Nos and location
·     Water spray systems (manual MVWS) = ___Nos and location
·     Manual Call points = ___Nos and location
·     Fire & Gas detectors= ____Nos and location and location
·     Fire Extinguishers = ___Nos and location
·     Foam Trolley = ___Nos and location
·     Hose Box = ___Nos and location

Suspend all the jobs (hot/ Cold) and evacuate the area immediately within 2 KM range.
Operate MVWS system for LPG sphere shell cooling for both affected sphere & adjacent spheres to protect from radiation heat.
Isolate all LPG spheres & stop all operation of LPG transfer.
Start water monitors in spray mode.
Transfer of LPG to other safe sphere after thoroughly understanding the situation Contact Mutual Aid for backup and to evacuate nearby community & barricading the nearby highways within the range of about 2 KM radius.
A large leakage of the LPG can form a vapour cloud that can travel up to 1.9 Km.
Approach the fire or gas leakage area from upwind or crosswind. All ignition sources down wind of leak should be put off or water curtain should be provided immediately.
Evacuate the area within the range of vapour clouds as quickly as possible. In case, escaping LPG is not on fire, activate the ROV to cut off the source of LPG. Water spray is effective in dispersing LPG vapours. The spray stream should be directed across the normal vapour path.
Do not attempt to extinguish the LPG fire unless the source of the leak cut off. A small LPG fire can be extinguished by Dry chemical powder. The extinguishing agent should be directed to the point of vapour release. Immediately start water spray on the leaking LPG to avoid re-ignition.
The best method is controlled burning of leaking LPG as it prevents the formation of vapour cloud. The application of sufficient quantity of water to keep the shell of the vessel and piping cool will allow the fire to consume the products without risk of causing failure. It is desirable that the leaks cannot be controlled after extinguishing fire and wherever the leak can be controlled, attempt to extinguish the fire.

Firefighting strategy for LPG storage sphere fire
Do not extinguish the flame except by elimination of fuel, as the accumulation of leaking gas forms a flammable vapour cloud and increases the risk of explosion due to accidental ignition.
Stop the movement of the product in and out of the tank by activating ROVs, etc.
Use the water spray system to cool the shell of LPG sphere, if this seems ineffective, use ground water monitors to cool the vessels. Do not apply a solid jet directly on the shell of the LPG sphere. Always make sure that water application must be in spray mode.

In the event of a fire in the bottom section, apply water spray through fixed/mobile water monitors to the piping assembly/supporting structure. Water cooling should be carried out on the adjacent storage vessels.
Water cooling on the affected vessel should be continued even after the flame has been extinguished until all danger of re-ignition of the hot surfaces or other sources has been eliminated.
Water spray protection for fire fighters should be provided continuously as long as the danger of vapour cloud persists.
If possible, pump water into the vessel to float the flammable material above the leak point in the vessel/sphere. This will extinguish the flames if the rate of water pumping exceeds the rate of leakage (an attempt should only be made when competent to do so).
If a shell failure occurs below the liquid level in the vessel/sphere and results in a leak that exceeds the capacity of the water pumping facility, several solid streams of water should be directed on the shell surrounding the leak.
Try to form a curtain of water spray and maintain it until all flammable material i.e. LPG has been consumed and the vessel has become gas-free by natural ventilation or by the addition of steam in the vapour space of the sphere/vessel.
Before resuming the plant operations after the end of firefighting, a gas test should be carried out in pits, trenches or dykes where gas or heavy vapours could accumulate. Portable gas detectors should be used to check for the presence of flammable gas. Similar precautions and firefighting operation must be followed in the event of fire in the LPG recovery Unit.

Firefighting resources:
Fire water requirement for affected sphere cooling = 556 m3/hr
Fire water requirement for adjacent two sphere cooling = 1112 m3/hr
Fire water requirement for hose stream and one monitor = 375 m3/hr
Fire water requirement for fixed ground water monitor (4Nos) = 912 m3/hr
Total fire water Requirement = 2955 m3/hr

Personal protective equipment and lifesaving equipment
SCBA set = 14 Nos with 100% spare cylinders
Cryogenic suit and hand gloves = 20 Nos
Red flag for vapour cloud marking = 12 Nos
Firefighting suit = 14 Nos

Manpower resources
Fire officer – 02 Nos
Firefighters = 14 Nos
Auxiliary fire squad for replacement of front line responders = 14 Nos
First Aiders = 3 Nos
Doctor at medical center = 01 No

Firefighting equipment, appliances and medical transportation
Fire engine =2 Nos
DCP fire engine = 1 No
Fire hoses = 40 Nos (15m length each)
TP branches/ nozzles = 6 Nos
Dividing breaching = 4 Nos
Water curtain = 4 Nos
Ambulance = 2 Nos
Portable gas monitor = 3 Nos

Welfare facility
Transportation for manpower replacement = 2 Nos
Dehydration remedy kits = 4 per person
Drinking water at site = 2 ltrs per person

Emergency Team
Field officer
Actuate the nearby MCP,  inform to operation panel officer and shift incharge via Walkie Talkie.
Operate Deluge system of LPG spheres.
Stop the transfer/ receive of LPG.
Stop all nearby jobs immediately.
Assist the firefighting team.

Company Incident Controller
Report to site and take charge of incident site as per Emergency management and response plan.
Assess the site & coordinate with DCS panel officer for mitigation.
Direct all emergency operations as per SOP.
Coordinate with all emergency team members i.e. Fire/ Security/ Medical/ etc
Ensure personnel are moved to the Master assembly point outside the range of about 2 KM radius.
Stop Loading/ Unloading operation of Truck & rail gantry.
Update the company head for probability of BLEVE & consequences thereof.
Evacuate all manpower including Emergency control team & equipments at any sign of BLEVE to occur.
Determine level of emergency & inform to Site main Controller (SMC).
Seek additional support and resources for controlling the emergency & evacuation of nearby community. Suggest SMC to Actuate Offsite emergency plan with district disaster control center and mutual aid.
At end of an emergency, assess damage & environmental / toxicity level, declare ALL CLEAR.

Firefighting team
After receiving an emergency call, the fire team must present themselves urgently with all appropriate firefighting equipment, personal protective equipment and report to the emergency site.
While taking emergency turnout from the fire station, make sure of the wind direction, be in constant contact with the fire control room. After reaching the emergency site, the fire tender / fire engines should only be parked in the upwind / crosswind direction. The fire tender must be parked in a safe place and directed towards the exit.
Evaluate the scenario, get all the information about the emergency site from the plant shift in-charge or site incident controller and a brief final mitigation action to all firefighters.
All members of the fire crew must wear self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Two firefighters must ensure the connection of the hydrant to the Fire tender for make-up water and be ready for firefighting.
The rescue operation must be launched at the initial level by two firefighters and the other firefighters must be ready for the dispersion of gas and firefighting.
If necessary, call in for additional fire assistance and resources. If possible, cool nearby equipment using the deluge water spray (DV) system.
The fire commander should assess the situation and ask the firefighting team to use a fire suit / heat resistant suit / other specialized equipment.
Operate the groundwater monitor / tower monitor and HVLRM (high-volume long-range monitor) for water.
Help the operations and maintenance team to mitigate the incident. If there is a demand to close the process isolation valve which is engulf in fire, the responder must wear a fire entry suit with a water spray back-up line. These water spray must continue to provide a cooling effect to the personnel involved in closing the isolation valve.
Water curtain must be provided to isolate the radiant heat, if possible. Intensive cooling of the surrounding installations must be ensured to prevent the spread of fire.
The fire chief must ensure the required fire water header pressure of the fire water system in coordination with the operator of the fire water pump house. If situation demand, the fire chief may consult the site incident controller for any further assistance from mutual aid members, the auxiliary team, etc.
All actions to mitigate the incident must be carried out under the instructions of the fire chief. Check the LEL with the operating team in consultation with the site incident controller.
Ensure adequate drainage of spills and take the necessary measures to eliminate any contaminated surface.
After ALL CLEAR, stop the operation of fire protection system and communicate the fire water pump house about no further demand. Ensure the restoration of all emergency fire equipment / appliances.

Security team
Reach at Site & report to CIC.
Controls access to the Incident site
Allow smooth entry of external emergency team as per ERMP and through predicated entry gate.
Control traffic and personnel movement by ensuring proper barricading the area/ Road within 2 KM.
Assist Rescue & Fire Fighting operation.
Security Personnel’s to be available at various locations to guide the Outside Emergency vehicles to site.

Medical team
Ambulance should be reported at emergency site.
Mobilize injured persons from the site to health center
First Aid to be administered.
Mobilize second Ambulances (if required).

Mutual Aid Team
Police: - Barricade the Highway & control the traffic
Fire Brigade – entry shall be as per ERMP
District Authority: - Arrange for extra resources and evacuate nearby community

Emergency No of fire control room: XXXXXXXX
DHDT panel contact No: XXXXXXXX

******* End******
Above is the one example of pre-fire plan for LPG storage sphere fire for specific scenario. Similarly, pre-fire plan must be prepared separately for each credible scenario with ref to QRA study.

Pre-fire plan template
Here is the standard template and sample pre-fire plan developed according to our experience. This template can be revised depending on the site condition. Standard NFPA 1620, latest edition 2020 can be referenced for a pre-incident template, but it is mainly applicable for building and may not be suitable for a refinery.
Click here to download
Standard template for Pre-fire plan for oil Refinery credible scenarios
Sample pre-fire plan for LPG sphere emergency

LPG storage and handling facility is extremely prone to major accidents, including fires and explosions due to its inherent flammability property. Preparation of Pre fire plan or Pre incident plan for specific equipment in specific operational area is the key for effective mitigation of any emergencies. Quantitative Risk assessment must be referred while preparing the pre fire plan. Effective emergency response can be assured by regular practicing i.e. conducting fire drill based on pre-fire plan. Practical firefighting strategies must be included in pre fire plan for all emergencies, including fires, explosions and the release of toxic gases. Important information such as process description, material data, list of hazards substances with their properties, list of available fire protection system, layout, approach rout marking on layout, line of action and firefighting strategies, estimated resources etc must be the part of pre fire plan.

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